Here's a little data for you: 61 years of it, to be precise. The National Science Foundation publishes its data on US doctoral recipients sliced a variety of ways, including some non-restricted public use files that are aggregated at a high level to protect privacy. The interface is a little quirky, and if you're doing large sets, you need to break it into pieces (this was three extracts of about 20 years each), but it may be worth your time to dive in.
I merged the data set with my mega table of IPEDS data, which allows you to look at institutions on a more granular level: It's not surprising to find that University of Washington graduates have earned more degrees than graduates of Whitman College, for instance. So, you can filter the data by Carnegie type, region or state, or control, for instance; or you can look at all 61 years, or any range of years between 1958 and 2018 and combine it with broad or specific academic fields using the controls.
High school and independent counselors tell me they've found this handy when working with students, and others just find it interesting: Which private, liberal arts college in Oregon is right up there with the big publics in the number of graduates who earn a doctorate? What's happened to Harvard's rank in the last six decades? Of course the big doctoral public universities are high producers, but what about private, master's degree institutions? What happened in the year I was born? How about HBCU's? All available with the click of a few buttons.
The Tableau workbook is open for downloading, as there are hundreds of questions that might be asked that you can find out yourself with a little manipulation. Have at it.